Plastic surgery studies with Karim Sarhane 2022? Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a hormone produced by the body that has the potential to be used as a treatment for nerve injuries. IGF-1 may help heal nerve injuries by decreasing inflammation and buildup of damaging products. Additionally, it may speed up nerve healing and reduce the effects of muscle weakness from the injury. However, a safe, effective, and practical way is needed to get IGF-1 to the injured nerve.
Dr. Karim Sarhane is an MD MSc graduate from the American University of Beirut. Following graduation, he completed a 1-year internship in the Department of Surgery at AUB. He then joined the Reconstructive Transplantation Program of the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Johns Hopkins University for a 2-year research fellowship. He then completed a residency in the Department of Surgery at the University of Toledo (2021). In July 2021, he started his plastic surgery training at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Surgery (2021).
Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of IGF-1 to SCs, myocytes, and neurons in vitro and following PNI in animal models, several factors must be examined prior to proposing a treatment modality that is suitable for clinical translation. Besides efficacy, additional considerations include ease of regulatory clearance and safety. With regard to regulatory clearance, GH, Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone, and IGF-1 are already clinically available, FDA-approved drugs approved for other indications. With regards to safety, hypoglycemia is the most commonly seen short-term effect of IGF-1 use, although accumulation of body fat, coarsening of facial features, and lymphoid hyperplasia necessitating surgical correction have also been observed with long-term use (Contreras et al., 1995; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). Clinical trials investigating a link between malignancy and exogenous GH therapy have been equivocal, with multiple studies in children undergoing GH therapy demonstrating a low risk of associated malignancy. Additionally, GH therapy in adults has not been found to increase the risk of cancer (Yang et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2005; Chung et al., 2008; Renehan and Brennan, 2008; Svensson and Bengtsson, 2009; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). Given the potential systemic effects of IGF-1, a practical delivery system that can provide sustained release of bioactive IGF-1 to nerve and muscle tissue affected by PNI is of great importance. It will also be important to determine the minimum dose and duration required to achieve therapeutic efficacy.
Recovery by sustained IGF-1 delivery (Karim Sarhane research) : Under optimized conditions, uniform PEG-b-PCL NPs were generated with an encapsulation efficiency of 88.4%, loading level of 14.2%, and a near-zero-order release of bioactive IGF-1 for more than 20 days in vitro. The effects of locally delivered IGF-1 NPs on denervated muscle and SCs were assessed in a rat median nerve transection-without- repair model. The effects of IGF-1 NPs on axonal regeneration, muscle atrophy, reinnervation, and recovery of motor function were assessed in a model in which chronic denervation is induced prior to nerve repair. IGF-1 NP treatment resulted in significantly greater recovery of forepaw grip strength, decreased denervation-induced muscle atrophy, decreased SC senescence, and improved neuromuscular reinnervation.
Patients who sustain peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) are often left with debilitating sensory and motor loss. Presently, there is a lack of clinically available therapeutics that can be given as an adjunct to surgical repair to enhance the regenerative process. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) represents a promising therapeutic target to meet this need, given its well-described trophic and anti-apoptotic effects on neurons, Schwann cells (SCs), and myocytes. Here, we review the literature regarding the therapeutic potential of IGF-1 in PNI. We appraised the literature for the various approaches of IGF-1 administration with the aim of identifying which are the most promising in offering a pathway toward clinical application. We also sought to determine the optimal reported dosage ranges for the various delivery approaches that have been investigated.
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) affect approximately 67 800 people annually in the United States alone (Wujek and Lasek, 1983; Noble et al., 1998; Taylor et al., 2008). Despite optimal management, many patients experience lasting motor and sensory deficits, the majority of whom are unable to return to work within 1 year of the injury (Wujek and Lasek, 1983). The lack of clinically available therapeutic options to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery remains a major challenge.